eo

= a> oe

ates?

Alling rs ca ~

~ ee aie oe

Og

7S

EX LIBRIS

William Healey Dall

Division of Mollusks Sectional Library

This book was bound through

the generosity of the

NATIONAL CAPITAL SHELL CLUB

Be an e f.

i Pi Aa) ee i % APO. cles Se

1 Ga i a) a i oe a -

a

7

y WILLIAM H. DALL SECTIONAL LIBRARY DIVISION OF MOLLUSKS

Zoological Llustrations,

OR

ORIGINAL FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

NEW, RARE, OR INTERESTING

ANIMALS,

SELECTED CHIEFLY FROM THE CLASSES OF

Ornitholagy, Entamalogy, and Conchology,

AND ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR APPARENT AFFINITIES.

BY WM. SWAINSON, ESQ., F.R.S.,F.L.S.

ASSISTANT COMMISSARY GENERAL TO H.M. Forces. CorrEsPONDING MEM- BER OF THE NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY OF PARIS; HONORARY MEM- BER OF THE HISTORIC SOCIETY OF NEW YORK; MEMBER OF THE WERNERIAN society, &c. &c, &c.

a : mM OF Molliely

. OA ES VOL. Et. SOctions] Libre: :

SECOND SERIES.

Fondo ;

PRINTED BY W. J. SPARROW, BERNERS MEWS, BERNERS STREET. PUBLISHED BY BALDWIN & CRADOCK, PATERNOSTER ROW, AND R. HAVELL, 77, OXFORD STREET.

1831-2.

TO HIS MOST CHRISTIAN MAJESTY,

BMouts Philippe, KING OF THE FRENCH,

Whom as a Paivare Gentreman, exiled by despotism from his native country, enjoyed that respect which the dignity of virtue can alone ensure; whom, as a PRINcE,

descended from a race of Kings, gained the affections of a

whole people ;— as the Kine of a great and intellectual

nation, enjoys the love and veneration of the wise and the good; and as a true Patron or Science, munifi- cently encourages, both privately and publicly, all who

are engaged in its pursuit,

THIS VOLUME

OF

ZOOLOGICAL ILLUSTRATIONS,

Is Dedicated, WITH SENTIMENTS OF THE HIGHEST ADMIRATION

AND OF THE GREATEST RESPECT,

BY THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE.

—>-——_

THE present state of science in Britain, the usual subject of our preface, has recently been discussed by powerful writers ; and has drawn from others,? equally eminent, bitter reflec- tions. As regards Zoology, there is a great show of patro- nage. Zoological gardens, and new societies have sprang up: cheap publications, on popular natural history, appear daily; and professors have been installed at the two Lon- don Universities. Yet what has resulted? We have lecturers expounding systems they do not comprehend,’ and we have professors maintaining that a walk into the fields will make “a very good naturalist.”* Meantime nearly every perio- dical work on pure science has languished or died away. The Zoological Journal has been discontinued, although nominally patronized by a society enjoying an enormous annual receipt. The fact, indeed, is but too apparent, that the science of the country, speaking generally, has become super- ficial, while “neither literature nor art has been encouraged in our opulent Island, half as much as they have been by some of the petty kingdoms of the Continent.’”?

But the political horizon is happily brightening, and the change will ultimately affect all. The stream of national patronage has long been prevented from branching off and fertilizing spots, now impoverished and neglected. Natural History, more than any other science, requires such aid ; because it is inapplicable to the purposes of life; and while its study is attended with enormous expence, its acquirement leads to nothing tangible. It is a melancholy fact, that while our present laws crush individual exertion, by extort- ing a large number of free copies of the most costly works, undertaken by their authors without the slightest hope of remuneration,—the Government of France assigns for sub- scriptions to such publications, an annual sum of £10,000.° But on questions regarding the patronage of science, Great Britain, unfortunately, is poorer than any nation in Europe.

1 Babbage (On the Decline of Science), Quarterly Review: ¢ Herschel. Sir Humphrey Davy. Sir Nicholas Harris. Millengen. ( Anciené Coins). See also Lowdon’s Natural His. Mag. Nov. 1831. p. 481. 3 Northern Zool. 2. p.xliv. 4 Montague’s Orn. Dict. new edition, preface. 5 Atheneum Journal, Jan, 1832, p.32. 6 Ibid, p. 37.

ve f i‘

3 7,

f i ir

i ay hy aon ite

; aA VICOQLA cumsorva

Courver Waterchat

4 T 4

ah Mh ee PSAs

) a

Pity: (irae wty A ee yey tn ie

ay rae ies ota) MO 2 -; y

(on Pe ae ysl ae ee Hey! ee " rs

ye ee

Di. . i ¥ ead im a Re ue ° ao 20 Ti: presen ain Ba eae mS hes Ri ¥ & b's 2

' AME Sil opbsith Neel ein ky

i 1D nea ae Mies) ‘9 7 LAM die.

BRS WAY week vi do's ches 5°. bursa ia 2 ko a tals i perde a 4 a, ee Pater ai, tat mys me ries at Ss Aint.) ree tl WP ik ree Sk NOE Fh ste Ae i ee see ah Naa att ets Pa “O46 nin hee dhe P71, Arey pints oycpeers (his evo, he a ae k SeieAll 3 peat: af away git) y ow ever it Ree Sivieiy aeye. chery eke CS Ge A Ra Bera" wma ty, weet ee, Dory Ma

ee jhe gadené ee a

eu 4 =; peat ie ‘4 wars Eaithey ip 7s

te + cade-< by ns BREE essa eee)

ae aay hits > any Lee bre 7 : oa

ality oy ieee f nee mh c 2 42 MY as iF gg

eae oe

geet OPER te er ny ghd St oie of ae

4 A Ae 2a Te

Sher y "4 }

‘i .

a

cite aight A

ic es

ae

FLUVICOLA _ cursoria. Courier Waterchat. a er Family Todide. Sub-Family Fluvicoline.

Fiuvicouin®. Bill, in general, strong ; depressed, the tip abrupt- ly bent and notched: gape with stiff bristles. Tarst long ; toes nearly free, claws slender and acute. Scapular covers long. Quzll and tail feathers very broad; but the latter of various shapes. Frequent marshy situations in the New World. Nobis.

GENERIC CHARACTER.—Zool. Journ. No. 10, p. 172.

SpEcIFIC CHARACTER.

White, back brown; wings, stripe on each side the head, and broad rounded tail, black; the latter tipt with white.

EE

Tuert is to be found, in Tropical America, a singular race of flycatching birds, whose plumage is black and white. Their haunts are only in the vicinity of water: they pursue their prey upon the ground, running with great celerity, and are constantly in motion. ‘They have, in short, all the manners and habits of the Stone Chats, and when we pub- lished the definition of this genus, we were led to believe it belonged to the Saxicoline. The present species we met with in abundance at Pernambuco, frequenting the sides of the rivers and lagoons.

It is not surprising that ornithologists, who are so fre- quently compelled to form their ideas of natural divisions from mere skins, should be entirely unacquainted with the group, of which this genus is probably the type. But it is strange that the full and accurate information concerning it, which has long ago been furnished by Azara, should have been so utterly neglected. In the views which we have taken of the affinities of these birds, we consider they present a point of junction with the Saxicole ; passing on one side into the genuine Flycatchers of America, (Ty- rannula Sw.) and on the other into the typical Todies. The contents however of this group, we are but partially acquainted with. It will comprise Nengetus, Sw. Alectu- rus, Vieil, and several other forms now widely scattered in the newest systems, together with one or two others not yet defined, which we have only seen in the Paris Museum.

Since the above was printed, we find the name of Xolmus has just been

proposed for this genus by M. Boie, he not being of course aware that this, and some of his other groups, were published by us three years ago.

MACROPTERYX dongipennis

Long wonged crusvud Swot

L—

pay

MACROPTERY X longipennis.

Javanese crested Swaliow.

Family Hirundinide. GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill (fig. 1.2.) small, entire, base depressed and straight, the outer half of the culmen suddenly curved; lower mandible straight, nostrils large, oblong: Varsz short, without scales; anterior toes of nearly equal length; (fig. 3.4.) claws strong; hinder toe long, not versatile, the claw very short and thick. Nob.

SpeciFIc CHARACTER.

Above obscure glossy green; throat, breast, and lower part of the back light grey ; belly, spot on the scapulars, and line over the eye, white; ears rufous: front with an incumbent crest.

Hirundo Klecho, Horsfield, Linn. Trans. xiii. p. 143, female ? Cypselus longipennis. Pl. Col. Pl. 83, f. 1?

a

To Dr. Horsfield, one of the most successful and scientific investigators of Oriental Zoology, we are indebted for the first discovery, in Java, of this charming bird. Of its economy nothing is as yet known; but the uncommon length of its wings, indicate its possessing the utmost rapi- dity of flight. Another, and a much larger species, is among the Ornithological treasures discovered in the Kast- ern Archipelago by my estimable friend M. Lesson, and which he has already communicated to the public. A third is the Cypselus Comatus, of M. M. 'Temminck and Laugier.

The peculiar structure of these birds oblige us to consider them as forming a natural group, intermediate between the typical Swifts, and the Swallows. ‘To the first they are allied by their strong scansorial feet ; to the latter by the length and fixed position of the hind toe, and the depres- sion of the bill.

We suppose that the figure of the Hirondille longipennes, in the Planches Coloriées, (pl. 83), is intended to represent this species ; if so, it is incorrect, both in drawing, propor- tion, colouring, and detail.

oat: soioe Bre luleesiane tance #3 lovseen ,bigthenitt a

al 1 ctrahil ‘S4od> RP Woe rHike ie vr

talped i ne Se Is

; aman hh * oe

Shak tales ad ti re) dee hirras nin ilvanee Jvtiiee ‘dale. eas aAri%ea dy: Lite p24 iwi pe iy ee vated hirdate ny ee Oe Woraed asyed.: tilore tyiwi wale. ae “fe garalile®

20H onniait cba aif ca yee ewnlo ve Wi rset ‘one Yiaeeme MeV asd fabut. acl ray —, si! Gey f

» ot amend apePoae -

-

is i Mi. reso’ apie caved + dap “ee, 1 vem’ Bayi sath tama wel ya ant viv Nang witiva + vay! healed : ens bey, Yack vg ; Aer teshe wnt’ my hat rh, tty od yin SN en ioe

f ethitrel BT ag tile wuw'® .aala jase udlsol ie ¢

{£1 284 J60 I .cinhoephpiite

I pe a

_ aly ‘al haijd ab 4 ivi ie 7 1 e GQ dPLaan at) to ay ath

MOM Ot ay “Vad ; yifons hd we ai. Reititos: Wye Feoliet is ah Gavgeon yateoney pe shania een ati los an 2! oe ran rary a bv ents odode | Adyl th’ 4 be feast Adi wi badsys ‘wi aa7y 2) re hicahguale diy if a : bie greeny toe trmdths 1 Miew ptr ie oyaagtd oh: a pam x ae ee) Tarynn fan Goi isigy an a. a ui aume’) sien Shinn? oF we ipida shred sesebi bi seal erst silty ag Wl aaowisd stajlavrstal eory ieiohag * paired’ 534 FOU) sath aft Wt apollewn oF here alee, cing siit-yd vatial aif ar ; ont LofyGawaie piri ead) rel eval ay me . uy) hel alt We noi) hue nga hey va Nidadl Xe wonosqip aut Alitinoritt wit 16 aio gi oil? te dy _ . sooo o2 lghdadai ef (624g) aavenie') tte ifs ni =e gid af did ana ne WV; ‘i ane its

fain

m~

he tae La viele) Sey ad dO ny

Tan :

BFUDAMUS.-PLI

N oF , o 7 F 1 Agesvtaws 2. Doryssws : o

2

EUDAMUS Agesilaus.

Family Hesperidee—Nob. (Anopluriform Stirps. Horsf.) GENERIC CHARACTER.

Antenne with the club unequally fusiform, the outer half abruptly bent, forming a lengthened, attenuated hook, alike in both sexes; anterior wings papilioniform: posterior wings with the caudal appendages very long and obtuse.

Type.— Hesperia Proteus. Fab.

SpEcIFIC CHARACTER.

Posterior wings dark brown, with a broad, entire, cream coloured margin; beneath marked with two darker bands, and a basal dot : appendages very long, whiteish.

er

Tue insects composing this group, have only been dis- covered in the hot latitudes of America. In the Systema Nature one species alone is recorded; Fabricius was acquainted with three ; our own cabinet possesses eighteen, all collected in a comparatively insignificant portion of Brazil. Others have been figured by Drury and Cramer, so that the number of species already known, may probably amount to near thirty.

The flight of these Swallow-tailed Hesperide, is usually performed in the morning and evening, and is so rapid, as frequently to elude the eye of the observer. They rest with all the four wings perpendicular, similar to the Swallow-tailed Butterflies, (P. Machaon, &c.) The present is a very rare species ; we captured only two specimens near Bahia.

i

EUDAMUS _ Doryssus.

Posterior wings, with short snowy tazls, and a half border of white on both sides; beneath brown, with a few paler dots near the base.

Tue sexes of this species materially differ. Our figure represents the female: in the male, the wings are browner, and highly glossed at their base with green ; the snowy border on the posterior wings is very narrow above, but much broader beneath. It appears very locally distributed ; we found it common in the vicinity of Bahia.

Eudamus, PI. 1.

et : os §

MITRANA, Pl.4.

Attra oprscopotes

cy A 7 Bath: Aion in 2: | ~? 1 aes ¥ ; 1 | : at - Le ;

als 7 z

- a sa \# Aa at

iryva A P .

MIT RA _ Episcopalis. a ce Family Volutide,—Sub-Family Mitriane. GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Shell never turrited or plaited, ovate-fusiform, the base wide, ob- tuse, and truncated: pil/ar with 4 plaits: the plaits simple. Outer lip crenulated, or toothed: Aperture at the base effuse, smooth within, and destitute of an internal groove. Nobis. Types of Form. 1, M. episcopalis. 2, papalis. 3, scabriuscula: 4, Zebra. 5, JSerruginea.

Specific CHARACTER.

Shell with the spire thickened, and marked by transverse punctured dots: white with crimson spots; inferior spots small and quadrate, the superior large and irregular ; pillar 4 platted.

Voluta vel Mitra episcopalis, duct. (Lam. Syst. 7. 299.)

et

WE view this elegant, though common shell, as the type of the Lamarkean Mitres, a group we shall hereafter consider asa sub-family. [tis common in various parts of the Asiatic Ocean, and sometimes occurs of gigantic size: in its natu- ral state it is covered with a thin olive epidermis.

We regret that the nature of this work will not permit us to do more than furnish the clue, to the natural arrangement of the two typical groups of this family, Voluta and Mitra. The first of these we have, indeed, pledged ourselves to enter upon more fully in Exotic Con- chology. But the arrangement of the Volutes is so inti- mately connected with that of the Mitres, that we scarcely know how to illustrate one, without perpetually adverting to the other.

The two typical groups of the Lamarkian Mitra we now characterise from their shells; they correspond to those of the typical Volutes ; while their internal relations may be learned from the respective types of form here designated. The genera Mitra and Tiara, each present a circular series of affinities, and are united by the fourth type in each group. Even a partial study of this disposition will reveal to the Conchologist a harmony of design, amid the greatest diversity of structure, which he could scarcely have suspected in the mere covering of an animal.

The shells which appear associated with M. episcopalis, in this type of form, are never coronated : the only external sculpture which they in general possess, are delicate rows of minute punctured dots, in the typical examples, as Per- tusa, millipora, versicolor, the outer lip is acutely toothed ; while in the aberrant species, Melaniana, tessellata, scutu- lata, &c. this part is smooth.

Mitrane, ph 4,

» M4 ° i » iL 4 a . 5 cP » c . ' we sal & i > ? PY

a Mee

t S:

iv I ie Wh ] . 7 ‘re

Nias tae Bp

hv rn : tata: “ih ' ego ) Satiiekt i me i m H Ab fd i to f J ah ; i i ) Ma i i Af ; ay A ¥ hy, eee y *. iw hi { \ i ve ih i ' % Yi i iil . U ) eat ar bee i 7

( i

Velo a eR | . y ) Dovey mL :

mM

MITRANA P15.

1. licaw wabello. 2. suleata

ate \ ot) y é

ee ahs pit ie ; ; é

' in mY aL

D n

*

net . Dh j > aS

Lal

ie

TIARA | jsabella. Fawn coloured Mitre.

Order Zoophaga. Family Volutide. Sub-Family Mitriane. (G. Mitra. Auct.) GENERIC CHARACTER. Animal Shell turrited, fusiform, the base contracted and slightly recurved ; pillar with 4-5 plaits, the upper plait sulcated: outer lip smooth, or entire. Aperture narrow, striated within, and pre- senting an internal groove at its upper extremity. Nobis. Types of Form. 1, M. Corrugata 2, Regina. 3, Sanguisuga. 4, Microzonias. do, Isabella.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

Ti. (Ty.5) Shell slender, fawn coloured, unspotted, marked by slender crowded, transverse, convex ribs, the interstices deeply eancellated ; inner lip wanting, outer lip crenately undulate ; pillar 5 platted.

eS aah pee Ir is highly probable that the Mitres, like some other carni- vorous marine animals, seek their prey, and habitually re- side, in the deep recesses of the ocean. Instances are recorded of individuals having been brought up from great depths ; and notwithstanding the number of species, of which we already know near 150, very few are common.

This genus, in short, is now become too overloaded, even for the purposes of artificial arrangement: but we refrained from characterizing any other group than Conoheliz, until we analized the remainder. Tara appears to be the second, or sub-typical group. The subordinate section, or type of form, represented by T. tsabella, includes several little known shells, all marked by delicate transverse ribs and longitudinal striz : the outer lip is not strictly toothed or crenated, but is merely undulated by the external sculpture: this subordinate group in Tara, is aberrant : all the species whose habitat we know, have come from the Pacific Ocean.

Tiara isabella is a shell of the greatest rarity. Our drawing was made froma specimen (presumed unique) sold at the Bligh Sale for 3/. 3s. It was stated to come from New Holland, and is now in the Manchester Museum.

—<z——_ TIARA _ssulcata. Sulcated Mitre.

Tiara. (Ty.5.) Shellmarked by distinct, carinated, remote transverse ribs, theinterstices concave: pillar three plaited, epidermis brown. For this new and very distinct species, we are indebted to Mr. Bulwar. It was collected on the Pacific side of the American Isthmus. The central line indicates the true size of our specimen. Mitrane, Pl. 5.

re

+s

6

aaa

may he

wis ne ni Ply

: * s i ' \ qj = i

,

n

¥ * iv | : 3 * f if fay OA end aA) BAN LY ay rs } } be Dek’ . } 5 i ] J ms ; Ha | , diab RAW A ¥ > s rr F vy i ; t Ge wet ys 5 ri y ' anal 55 hair é fh 7] 4 ef sy y) , : cad r - fa | tal 3 3 é uy 1} i 1 al , bt " : ; " 1 i A ae : J mh ‘| = iy : a ¥ at en mamta. | le > f mY Ma We ctoe Tu, see mI \ 1 Le aa ™~ . wea) - ae Ae

SYLVIA A23egatus

y, 7 , T J Z 7 4 Cola -crested Warbler ,

SYLVIA Regulus. Gold-crest. Golden-crested Warbler.

es Family, Sylviade. Sub-family, Sylviane. Nod. (See North. Zool. Vol. 2.) GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill very weak, considerably compressed, nearly straight; the tip bent and notched: rictus bristled. Wings moderate. Tail rather short.

Sup-GenerRA. Acanthiza. Horsf. Vig. Phyllopneuste. Meyer. pars.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

Sides of the head without any indication of white bands, crest of the male yellow-orange, bill very weak. 'Temminck.

Sylvia Regulus. Tem. Man. 1. 229. Roitelet ordinaire. Motacilla Regulus. Linn. 1. 338.

Golden-crested Wren. Montague, Ornith: Dict. 2. p.—WSee par- ticularly the Introduction to Vol. 1. p. 34.

eee en

Wiru the exception of the Humming Birds, the Gold crests are the smallest birds in creation. The natural size of the only species found in this country is here represented ; while the weight seldom exceeds eighty grains. Notwith- standing its delicate structure, this beautiful little bird braves the severest winters of Northern Europe: it is found in Denmark (Mill. Zool. Dan.), and extends to the borders of the Arctic Circle, (Temm.) It is more frequent with us than is generally supposed, but its diminitive size screens it from observation. It is perpetually in motion: hopping among the branches, examining every leaf and spray, and will frequently catch minute insects that en- deavour to escape, by darting at them like a Flycatcher : we have repeatedly watched a pair of these birds which fre- quented our garden at Warwick, in the middle of winter, for three years: their favourite resort was an old fir-tree, which they regularly and carefully explored, much in the manner of the Titmice (Parii.)

If the name of Sylvia is to be retained in Ornithological systems, it should obviously be applied to this, which has been correctly thought the typical group of the whole family. Acanthiza, for reasons elsewhere explained, appears a sub- ordinate type, and Phyllopneuste cannot be adopted, with- out a glaring violation of natural affinities.

Peg va i ape Me in 14 :

eit

tts

t

PHAL.NICORNIS

flcanw

PHANICORNIS fammeus. Orange Redbird.

ge Family Laniade. Sub-family Ceblepyrine. Nob. GENERIC(?) CHARACTER.

Bill with the sides compressed, the under mandible rather thick, the gonyx ascending: rictus bristled. Feathers on the back and rump slightly spmous. Wings short. Tail rather lengthened, graduated, the tip forked: the feathers narrow.

Puentcornis. Nob. Boié (pars.)

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

Glossy black and golden orange: head, throat, wings, upper part of the back and middle of the tail glossy black; wings with iwo stripes of orange.

Muscicapa flammea. Auct. Tem. Pl. Col. pl. 263. Mus. Paris. Nost. $< —__

Tue Birds now arranged under this group, exclusively belong to Southern India and its luxuriant Islands. About five species have been discovered, most of which are orna- mented with a plumage of the brightest scarlet, crimson, or orange, relieved by glossy black. Their economy is not known, but their structure leads us to believe they live upon caterpillars and soft insects; as another group, representing these birds in Africa, are known to prefer such food. Both have the back feathers thick and rigid; although these cha- racters are least apparent in Phenicornis. Our figure is nearly of the natural size. ‘The female is stated to be yellow, where the male is orange. It appears to be not uncommon in Java.

The genera Parus, Turdus, Muscicapa and Sylvia have alternately been made the receptacles for these birds ; to neither of which do we consider they have any immediate affinity. Their whole structure evidently accords with that of the Ceblepyrii, or Caterpillar catchers, of M. Cuvier ; a group first pointed out by Le Vaillant: but as these have never been put in order, we can say nothing on the rank of Phenicornis, or on its various relations.

@..?,

t

Bae i Bly. e's NOs ee “a Daag iy ef Poet obey i > hee halts /, Z i 4 on PP Mes aoe i ok ae. Ais 1 ara '

idl.’

|

Pil

TILITHES

U

VOL

PTUs.

o ne

1 Murecana

VOLUTILITHES muricina.

et

Family, Volutide. Sub-Family, Volutine. Nod. (Genus Voluta, Lam.) GENERIC CHARACTER.

Spiral whorls regularly and gradually diminishing towards the apex, which is always acute. Plaits of the pillar numerous, always indistinct, generally evanescent, and sometimes want- ing. Nobis.

Type, Voluta musicalis? Lam.

SPECIFIC CHARACTER. Shell nearly fuciform, the base narrow and smooth; the upper part with longitudinal, subcostated, spinous plaits: inner lip thickened, the last plait on the pillar very thick, and separated JSrom the others, which are slender, and nearly obsolete, by a deep groove. Voluta Muricina. Lam. Syst. 7, 1, 350. Ency. Meth. pl. 383.

7k ee

Tue fourth principal division of the Lamarkian Volutes has hitherto been found only in a fossil state; unless, indeed, the Voluta Braziliana really belongs to this type. The species are very numerous, both in the London clay, and the Calcaire grossier of Grignon. They offer some beautiful types of form, representing the conterminous groups in this family, some of which we may hereafter notice more particularly. ‘The pre-eminent type may pro- bably be the V. musicalis of Lamarck; as yet, we only know this fossil from descriptions and figures, but it has obviously been confounded with several others.

Lamarck has given a character so exquisitely finished of V. muricina, that we have done little more than translate his words. Ourspecimen appears to be from Grignon, and was furnished to us with the following, by Messrs. Stuch- bury, 33, Theobald’s Road, Bedford Row.

—j>—___ VOLUTILITHES. pertusa.

Shell subfuciform, and the base striated ; the upper part with thick, remote, and somewhat nodulous ribs ; traversed near the suture with lines of punctured striz ; inner lip thickened, plaits on the pillar distinct, the last very strong, the two next smaller, and the upper very slender.

Tus species is certainly undescribed by Lamarck, nor do we find it in Dr. Fleming’s useful compendium of the ‘Mineral Conchology.”’ Our specimen has the grey tinge of the London clay fossils. Neither of these species are typical ; as they represent the recent costated Volutes, in the adjoining group.

a et o> Het Meter e : hs) If, Th Q ns Wem ee ike Soe ee ee ide ® * ; ; , } Cen : és ; é ra a e 1 : . a } £ a = : : Mi ? ; y AX y : * y we 4, A i . ee ; ‘7 i

| 9 , 1 ' s \ i i a it p gi : Cu ae j * y i . fi . we % id : i I ; 7 a H nm i : : ; arf, i s atts i ege Lyi Gs i

" tiga , | - n_* op GU ty an tpl} = 4 oie eA 4

awe | | | . . F ee

it. ys a 22 0 ae

im

9 i A

3

PL 6G

MIT RAN WA

£ ocellato 3. clivaformus

reelir [ee Co

i>

MITRELLA fusca.

et Family Volutide. Sub-family Mitriana. Nod. GENERIC CHARACTER.

Shell smooth, polished, sub-fusiform, the base obtuse and effuse; the plaits of the pillar oblique, and extending far beyond the aperture; outer lip internally smooth, the margin entire. Nobis.

Types of form. 1. M. fissuella. 2. casta. bicolor. 3. Oliveformis.

Speciric CHARACTER. Shell entirely brown, marked by bands of punctured dots ; spire and aperture nearly equal. ————

‘Pue natural situation of this group, in its own circle of affinity, has already been shewn ; it connects, in the most satisfactory manner, the genus Metra, as now restricted, with that of Conohelix, and opens at the same time a passage to the Olives. The species yet discovered are few, and hence we yet can only trace three types of form; the first evidently representing Mitra, and the third, probably, typifying Conohelix. M. Olivaria Lam., which. truly belongs to this genus, may, perhaps, be only a modification of the 2nd type, to which our present species strictly belongs. The representation of this group among the Volutes, will be found in Voluta Zebra and its allies.

Mitrella fusca is small, and of great rarity ; our own specimen, beautifully perfect, is the only one we have yet seen.

——————

MITRELLA ocellata.

Shell whiteish, the lower half of the principal whorl brown, with a band of alternate rufous and white spots, and marked with reticulated white lines, and remote sulcaled striw, internally punctured ; spire, and upper part of the body whorl, delicately plaited, the plates crossed by transverse lines of excavatcd dots.

Tuts species has probably been overlooked as a variety of M. Fissurella ; its markings, indeed, are partially the same, but its sculpture, and even its form, proves it to be distinct. The alternate white and rufvus spots bear a fanciful resem- blance to eyes. The description of M. Oliveformis has already been given at Pl. 48, in the first volume of our former Series. Mitrane, Pl. 6.

+ fag aaa ne

a Me ‘yi Rin bal ay tes

eNe

a

>

" v)

iad, Let ) | Len

MARKGARI'TAT A, PI |

«Uarguria unracatn s

peek oe oe

i

~<a

/

ae ate

*

aA . an

ee

my

cf

te AL 3

. ® "hea ;

a

MARGARITA crocata. Orange Pearl- Oyster.

Order Acephala. Family Margaritade. Nob.

MarGaRrITAD®. Animal byssiferous, attached to marine bodies by a fascicle of tendinous filaments. Shel foliaceous, the centre internally pearly and iridescent: the form irregular; the mar- gins fragile and transparent. Nob.

GENERA. Margarita. MALtevs. PERNA. Pinna. (VULSELLA?) Lam.

Sub-genera? Avicula. Crenatula. Inoceramus. Auct.

GENERIC CHARACTER. Margarita. See Leach. Zool. Miss. 1. p. 107. (1814.) (Meleagrina. Lam. Syst. 1819.)

SPECIFIC CHARACTER.

Shell subquadrate, squamose, fulvous or yellow, the ear of the right valve dilated and scarcely sinuated, that of the left valve very small: inside silvery blue, hinge smooth.

EEO

Ir is the animal of this genus of Shells, which in sickness and disease, produces the true oriental Pearl: the costly ornament of sovereigns, and the chaste foil of beauty. An interesting account of the Pearl fishery of Ceylon, will be found in Mr. Wood’s entertaining Zoography, extracted from Percival’s History of that island.

The present is a small species, seldom exceeding the size of the figure: in young shells there is a cardinal tubercle in our valve, which disappears with age. ‘The Pearl-oysters are nearly all inhabitants of warm seas ; the species require much elucidation.

The genera, above enumerated, appear to present such a series of affinities, as to justify our suspicions that they form a natural group: the more so, as their analogies may be traced among the perlacious fluviatile shells, forming our family Unionide. If further investigation should confirm the correctness of this idea, the sub-genera will, of course, become types of form ; bearing the same relation to the genera, as Dipsus does to Anodon, or Castalia to Hyria.

Margaritadx, PI. 1.

an

ales an Ay, i

win

NYCTINOMUS amectus.” Duvoends Nighijedar

11

hol.

a

NYCTIORNIS amictus. Duvaucel’s Nightfeeder.

ee Ee Sub-order, Fissirostres. Family —————? GENERIC CHARACTER.

Bill subfaleated, compressed, margins of the upper mandible folding over those of the lower: rzetus excessively wide. Wings round- ed, moderate. Plumage lax, long. VYarst much shorter than the hallux. Toes and claws as in Merops and Prionites. Nobis.

SpEcIFIC CHARACTER.

Green, crown (in the adult) lilach, front of the throat and breast bright red.

Merops amictus. Pl. Col. pl. 310. fig. pessima.

Mus. Paris. ere

Tuts is perhaps the rarest, and certainly the most extraor- dinary bird, which the recent Zoological researches in India has brought to light. Its discovery is due to a young and accomplished Naturalist of France—M. Duvaucel, now alas! no more: but who lived to perpetuate his name by his brilliant discoveries, and to enrich the French Museum with the most splendid specimens of oriential Zoology now in Kurope.

The form, habit, and wings of this charming bird, are almost precisely those of Prvonites ; while the bill resembles that of Merops. Nothing can exceed the beauty of its lilach crown, or the bright vermillion of its throat. The bill is strong, and marked above on each sides with a sulcated line: the gape is so wide, as to reach underneath the eye. The whole structure of the bird, its round wings, and long lax plumage, indicates a totally different economy from that of Merops ; and this has been confirmed by Sir W. Jardine and Mr. Selby, who inform us that another beautful species, they have described, feeds during the night.

Our drawing, scrupulously exact, was made at the Jar- den des Plants. As we find Nyctinomus is a name already appropriated, we have substituted Nyctiornis: and we place this group at the extremity of the /isstrostres, adjoining to Prionites among the Scansores.

Total length ab. 13, wings 5, tail (beyond,) 3, tarsi hardly in.

CULICIVORA. aérvcaylla a7

Black-cwowned Gnatcatcher

: ; Peet ee ist Be cae | :

' a 4 _* : yt i 1 ar ; = +6 Ww " a qs ° * Se - * . :” . g

vv

CULICIVORA atricapilla. Black crowned Warbler.

Family, Sylviade. Sub-family, Sylviane. Nob. (See North Zool. Vol. 2.)

GENERIC CHARACTER.

Cuticivora. Swains. ie Zool. Journ. No. 11. (1827.) Lesson Man, 2. p. 430.

Bill very slender, the base depressed, the sides compressed, the culmen arched from the base. Nostrils long ; aperture linear and naked; rictus bearded. Wings remarkably short. Tail slender, graduated, and generally lengthened.

SpEcIFIC CHARACTER.

Above cinereous, beneath white; upper part of the head, middle tail feathers, and base of the three outer feathers deep black. Quills blackish, with white and grey margins.

Figuier a téte noir de Cayenne? Pl. Enl. pl. 704. f. 1. ?

a

Tue birds composing this natural but intricate group, have hitherto been found only in America. Scarcely superior in size to the Gold-crested Wrens, they exhibit much of the same activity and restlessness in searching after insects. Yet their manners, in other respects, are more in unison with those of the flycatching birds.

In size and in structure, our bird perfectly accords with the Sylvia cxerulea of Vieil, and represents that northern species in tropical America, but we are fearful of identify- ing it with that figured in the P/. Enl. Our drawings are of the natural size; in both these species the bill perfectly resembles that of Prinia. Horsf. except in being some- what shorter: the feet, however, are those of Setophaga, Swains. The Flycatchers and Warblers, are so blended together, by all writers, that we have not yet been able to discover the typical example of this group. Its true afflni- ties, however, appear to be as follows :—

Culicivora is represented in Africa by Drymoica, Sw., in India by Prinia, Horsf., and in Australia by Malurus, Vieil. ‘These genera, in conjunction with that of Sylvia, seem to indicate the first typical circle of this family. Culicivora exhibits many singular characters; in some approaching to Prinia, the tail is very short: others, shewing an affinity to Sylvia, have yellow crests : while a few species, leading to Setophaga, present us with the depressed bill of a Flycatcher.

OLIVA. Pi, 2

Clvdla purpurata £, hwInea

ae ¥ ic eet A

per, ly

eT a

rien gto

4

ad

OLIVA purpurata. Purple-mouthed Olive. ee Family Volutide.—Genus Oliva. Auci. SuB-GENUS, OLIVELLA.

CHARACTERS.

Spire of the shell lengthened, conic, the tip acute: inner lip not thickened, outer lip straight: base of the pillar curved in- wards, and marked by 2 strong plaits; upper plaits evanes- cent, or entirely wanting. Aperture effuse, and closed by an operculum? Nobis.

SpeciFic CHARACTER.

Shell whiteish, with a very acute spire, nearly as long as the aper- ture ; middle of the bedy whorl marked by angulated brown lines : suture with spots and fascicles of longitudinal stripes : basal belt very broad: aperture purple.

Oliva biplicata? Sow. Tank. Cat. No. 2332. p. 33. eee

Tuts shell may be considered as typical of a small group of Olives, which we suspect are peculiar to the American seas ; they offer many points of difference from those of the Indian Ocean. We recollect to have seen another species, in some cabinet, with a small operculum. We have been fearful of pronouncing this to be the O. biplicata, as the judicious Conchologist will perceive the two descriptions do not exactly agree; and we have another to which the characters given of bliplicata will equally well apply. The perpendicular line indicates the natural size.

ee OLIVA _ eburnea. Ivory Olive. Shell entirely white, or marked by two bands of angulated

purplish spots; pillar about 8-9 platted: basal belt and spire always white ; the former single,

Oliva eburnea. Lam. Syst. 7. 1. p. 438.

Tuts is the very common little Olive, sent in such abund- ance in the West India boxes of shells; we figure it, be- cause it is seldom rightly named in collections, being con- founded with conoidalis. oryza, and several others of an equally diminutive size: the plaits are sharp, short, well defined, and nearly all of equal size ; although the base of the pillar forms an internal elevation.

i

-

JIG

MARIUS Zhetys

MEAN eT ae

a

be