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This handsomely-printed and illustrated volume is the result of the efforts of Major Louis H. Everts to prepare and publish a history of the counties of Huntingdon and Blair. The material for the histories of the several sub-divisions of these counties was chiefly collated and the sketches prepared by writers detailed for that purpose by the publisher, as follows: J. L. Rockey for Barree, Brady, Franklin, Henderson, Jackson, Juniata, Logan, Miller, Morris, Oneida, Porter, Walker, Warrior's Mark, and West townships of Huntingdon County, and Snyder and Tyrone of Blair County; Dr. Thomas Cushing for Carbon, Cass, Hopewell, Lincoln, Tod, and Union; William H. Shaw for Clay, Cromwell, Dublin, Shirley, Springfield, and Tell townships of Huntingdon; and J. H. Schenck for the other townships of Blair County. The sketcli of the city of Altoona was commenced by J. P. Snell, and completed, after his death, by Dr. Thomas Cushing and others, and that of Penn township was written by Dr. John H. Wintrode. Chapter XVII., the " Bench and Bar," was prepared by Theodore H. Cremer, Esq., and the narratives of the numerous military organizations that participated in the great conflict for the maintenance of the integrity of our national Union were written by Capt. Franklin Ellis. Additional information, drawn from various reliable sources, was incorporated with these sketches.

It is not claimed tliat this work is free from error. It treats of a region whose history began nearly a century and a half ago, and which has within that period developed from an -almost ti-ackless wilderness to become the happy home of ninety thousand people. It requires great care to separate truth from error in the numerous cherished traditions of past events. This duty has been as faithfully performed as possible under the attending circumstances. Much valuable information will be found in the following pages that never before appeared in print or was accessible to the public.

Very many of the citizens of the two counties cheerfully responded to requests for informa- tion, or kindly tendered it, and they thereby contributed much to the thoroughness of details of the work. To all such respectful acknowledgment is made. Some localities have been more minutely described than others. A reason for this will be found in the fact that the residents of such districts manifested an interest in the work, and assisted in procuring valuable data pertaining to their respective neighborhoods.

J. SIMPSON AFRICA. HxTNTiNaDON, Pa., March 15, 1883.



The English Claim to rennsylvania— SwediBh and Dutch Poseeseion

-Final acknowlpdgn

tit uf the EngliBh Claim.. CHAPTER II.

CHAPTER III. Erection of Lancaster, Cumberland, and Bedford Counties Pur- chase of the Indian Titles Erection of Townships and Election Districts— Local Officers

CHAPTER IV. 1 Occupation Lenni Lenape Iroquois— Complaiu s by the Whites on Unpurchased Lands

CHAPTER V. The Murder of John Armstrong, an Indian Trade

and his Com-

CHAPTER VI. The Original Inhabitants of the Juniata Valley— Unlawful Intru- sions upon their Lands Efforts of the Government to restrain the


The Indian and French War of 1755— Erection of Forts Shirley, Standing Stone, Fetter's, Holliday's, Lowry's,Hartsock'8, Ly tie's, Anderson's, McAlevy's, and Roberdeau Troubles with the In- dians during the Revolutionary War Tory Expedition to Kit-

CHAPTER VIII. Highways— Indian Paths- Public Roads— The River— Turnpike Roads— Canals— Railroads

CHAPTER IX. Early Settlements— Names of Pioneers


Huntingdon— The Warm Springs— Jack's Narrows— Fort Shirley- Black Log Valley— The Clugage Family, and the Shades of Death in 1776

CHAPTER XI. Confiscation of the Estates of Traitors

CHAPTER XII. Formation of Huntingdon County Erection of County Buildings...

CHAPTER XIII. The Constitutional Conventions of 1776,1790, 1838, and 187.3


Iron Manufacture

CHAPTER XV. List of Marriages by Rev. John Johnston, 1787 to l82:i, 34'.l couples..

CHAPTER XVI. The Press of Huntingdon County



Military— War of the Rebellion— The Three Yeani' Troops— The

Twenty-fifth Regiment

CHAPTER XX. Military— The Forty-ninth and Fifty-third Regiments

CHAPTER XXI -The Sixty-second Regiment

CHAPTER XXII, Military- The Seventy-sixth and Seventy-seventh Regiments


Military Eighty-fuurth Regiment

CHAPTER XXIV. Military Ninety-second Regiment— One Hundred and Tenth Regi- ment—The Twelfth Cavalry

CHAPTER XXV. Military— War of the Rebellion continued— One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Regiment


One Hundred and nth Regiments

CHAPTER XXVir. Military— War of the Rebellion continued— Nineteenth and Twen- tieth Cavalry, and One Hundred and Ninety-second Hegiment...-

CHAPTER XXVIII. Military— War of the Rebellion continued— Two Hundred ?id Sec- ond, Two Hundred and Fifth, Two Hundred and Eighth Regi- ments—Huntingdon and Blair Men in other regiments

CHAPTER XXIX. Representatives in Congress and the Stale Legislature

CHAPTER XXX. Judicial Officers

CHAPTER XXXI. County Officers





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The English Claim to Pennsylvania— Swedish and Dutch Possession- Final acknowledgment of the English Claim.

Christopher Columbus, to whose enterprise and courage the world is indebted Cor the discoveries that resulted in opening the western continent as a home for the oppressed people of Europe, was born in the city of Genoa, Italy, about the year 1435. At this time a large and profitable trade was carried on between the European countries and India. Convinced by his de- ductions from the experience of preceding and con- temi)oraneous travelers and navigators, of the magni- tude and globular form of the earth, he wns assured that a new rnule to this rich rcgiun W(juld Iw found by sailing wcstu ardly. For eighteen years he labored to the end tliat \\r aiiLiht fit out an expedition to ]irac- tically test his scientific opinions. After many rebuffs and disappointments that would have crushed the am- bition of ordinary men, he gained the confidence and secured the encouragement and support of Ferdinand and Isabella, the reigning sovereigns of Spain, by whose liberality three small vessels were fitted out and



ards ascertained to be an verence, he named San

placed under his command.

tieet set sail from the mads

tlie 3d day of August, 1VJ2

October touched land, aftcrv

island, wdiich, in devout n

Salvador, one of the Bahama group, situated in N.

hit. 24° SO', and longitude 30' E. from Washington.

He also discovered Cnba, Hayti, and other islands^

and, returning, he reached the harbor of Palos on the

15th day of March, 1493.

The intelligence of Columbus' discoveries stimu- lated the fitting out of other expeditions by the mari- time nations of Europe. Henry VII. of England eagerly accepted the offer of John Cabot, a merchant of Bristol (but supposed to a Venetian by birth), to fit

out a fleet of vessels for a voyage of discovery by a more northern route than the one ]iiirsiiiMl by Colum- bus. On the 5th day of March, 14'.m;, the king, by patent signed at Westminster, authorized Cabot and his three sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and Sancius, "to saile to all parts, countreys, and seas of the East, of the West, and of the North, under our banners and ensigns, witli five ships, of what burden or quantitie soever they may lie, and as many mariners and men as they will have with them in the said ships, u|H,n their own proper cost and charges, to seeke out, dis- cover, and find wdiatsoever isles, countreys, regions, (ir provinces of the heathen and infidels, whatsoever they may be, and in what i>art of the world soever they may be, wdiich before this time have been unknoun to all Cliris'tians."'

Under this charter, in May, 1497, an expedition under the command of Sebastian set out, and on the 24th day of June land was descried, wdiich proved to be the coast of Labrador. He sailed along the coast three hundred leagues, and planted on the soil the banners of England and Venice.- The next year he again touched the continent in high latitudes, and turning southward, followed the coast as far as the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

As many European governments were from time to time sending out expeditions for discovery and con- quest, it became necessary to avoid conflicts with and war upon each other, to settle a principle which all should acknowledge as the law by which the right of acquisition which they all asserted should be regu- lated between themselves. This principle was, that discovery gave title to the government by whose sub- jects or by whose authority it was made against all other European governments, which title might be


consiiiiini:in-a i>y posses the Cabots rested the nieiit to dominion in tl

Upon tlie discoveries . of the English froveri tliern part of tliis coin

llrnry Iluds an i-aiL'li-h navi,u'at..r, set ont Ironi

Texel, Holland, April 'J, lUn'j,' in the ship " Half- Moon," to seek u jiassajre to China by the iiurth.a~t. lie was then in tlie service of the Dutch Ka-t India Company. Encountering great fields of ice, In- \va- compelled to change his course, and thm mailed l.>r Davis Strait. He touched land in latitu.l.' H I.'.'. and sailed thence southwestwardly a- far as latiliidr 37° 15'. Heturninir. he entered the ni..nth ..f the Delaware Bay on I'li.lav, Au-n-t i^Mli,-^ but encun-

New'Vork liay, discovered the river that bears bis name September lltli,-' and explored it above tlie

The liiLili and mighty States-General of Holland in 1(11 I i--ur.I an edict granting to [lersons who had or should thereafter discover " any new courses, havens, countries, or places" the exclusive privilege of resorting to and frequenting the same for four voyages. Under this edict the merchants of Amster- dam fitted out several vessels for the purpose of ex- ploration. One of these was commanded by Ca])t. Cornelius Jacobsen Mey, who entered the Delaware Bay. He gave his own name to tlie northern cape, now called Cape May, and to the southern the name Cape Cornelius, now known as Henlopen.

Xo settlement was made on the Delaware until 1023, wdien under the auspices of the West India Coni]>any, chartered in 1621, Capt. Mey ascended the Delaware, and on the eastern side, about Gloucester Point, commenced the erection of Fort Nassau, in- tended for a trading-post, as well as for security against the Indians. This effort was not successful. The fort was soon abandoned, for we are informed by De Vn,-. who visiud it in l(;:',;i, that it was then ill the pu--,>M the Indians.

I'eier Minuii, in b;:;7, under lb.' |.atn.nage of Christiana, l^i.ni of Sweden, with two vessels and a nund.rr ..f M'ttlrr-. rro~-.d ibr Allanlir, ami alter tourbing at .lanie^lowii, Va., reached the D.daware

abniil May, lir.s. He pu.vba-ed Ir tbr Indians

thes.,il on lb.' uvMern M.I 'the bav and river truni

Cape Henlopen lo Santirkan i Ibe tall, at Trenton,, and erected tli,' tort and lonn.lrd the lown of Chris- tiana, on the n..rlh bank -.1 Min.pias Creek, a Ira-ue abov,. ,t>,„„nll,. From tbi> be^^ininng. Suedi>b set-

ern side nt tlir l),-laware to and above the site of I'hila.lelphia. In hi.-it, I'etrr LindMn.,,,, a Suedid, engineer, snrvey,d and mapped tin- river iVo,,, its

fleet nmler the eoni.nand ol ( i,,vern..r V.irr Sinvv, -

sant. entered the river and I'aptured one by one the Sweili-li forts and took possession of the colony, and thus ended the Swedish government. Both nation- alities continued to dwell along the banks of the stream, the Dutch being the rulers.

The F^nglish continued to claim dominion over that portion of the continent along which Cabot had eoa-t.d, and Charles 11., with the view of wresting p.—e^-iori from the Dutch, on the 12th of March, liiii4, by iKitent granted to liis brother James, Duke of York, the territory now embraced in the States of Xew York and New Jersey. An expedition was sent from England for the purpose of reducing the Dutch fortresses, and on the 8th of September the fort and town of Manhattan, now Xew York, were surren- dereil. On the 1st of October following, the .settle- ments on the Delaware yielded, and thus ended Dutch dominion over the soil of Peunsvlvania.


nuilk.n uf till- Tliree Orisiuiil Couhlics.

Drinxi; the interval between the end of Dutch occupation of Pennsylvania and the grantinfr of the charter to William Penn, the English (iovernors of X'ew York issued a large number of land grants, and under their administration settlements multiplied along the Delaware. But as these relate wholly to that portion of the province, they do not directly con- cern residents in the interior.

William Penn, in 1674, became oi>e of three trus- tees chosen to manage the affairs of West Jersey. In the execution of this trust he had good oppor- tunity to become acquainted with the valuable tract of land lying on tlie opposite side of the river. At the death of his father, Admiral William Penn, it was found that the British government was indebted to bini for money loaned and services rendered about sixteen thousand pounds. In-tead of money, Wil- liam suiTL'e-ted that he would prefer a grant (d' land on the western side of the Delaware north of Mary- land. .\ forin.al i)etition was pre-eiited to I 'liarbs II. in .lunr, Idso, aiul after many conlerrnei ~ with adja- cent proprietors, on the 4th day of March, 1()M, the king granted a charter. The boundaries were de- scribed, but serious differences occurred, and many years passed before they were settled and defined. reiin. bis heirs and assigns, were made and ordained trih' ami absolute proprietaries of all the lands within the bounds described in the charter, and upon bini and bis heirs, their deputies ami lieuten- ants, ua- .-onrerred the executive authority of the pro\iii,r. William Markluun was commissioned DepiiiN (oi\(riior, and sent over from England elotbiil with lull authority to inaugurate the new goveriimeiil, and in the tall of the vear, at Upland,


now Chester, he took charge of the executive affiiirs.' In October, 1682, Penn arrived in the "Welcome," and soon thereafter the lands of the province were divided into three counties, to wit, Chester, Phila- delphia, and Bucks. The precise date of the erec- tion of these counties does not appear, but it must have been before the 18th day of November, 1682, as on that day the proprietary issued his writs to the sheriffs of the respective counties, requiring them "to summon all freeholders to meet on the 20th instant, and elect out of themselves seven persons of most note for wisdom, sobriety, and integrity, to serve as their deputies and representatives in General As- sembhj, to be held at Upland, in Pennsylvania, De- cember 6th (4th ?) next." In this assembly there were re])resentatives from each of the counties named, as well as from the three "lower counties" of Kent, New Castle, and Sussex. Representatives were chosen, and met in General Assembly at Chester on the 4th day of December. Among the most notable acts of this legislative body was the passage on the 7th of the same month of the "great law." The broad declaration of religious liberty contained in the first section of this law, incorporated in substance in each of the constitutions since adopted by the people of the commonwealth, indicated the liberal opinions of our ancestors as inculcated by the founder, and contributed to the rapid peopling and subsequent j prosperity of the colony. It is in these words :

"Almighty God being the only Lord of conscience, father of lights and spirits, and the author as well as object of all divine knowledge, faith, and worsliilt, who only can enlighten the mind and peisiiaiie and convince the understanding of I'euple in '\w- !■ \ i.i. . i . Ki- -over- j eignty over the souls of mankind, it is enai t.' i i i , .tlnrL--

said that no person now or at any titne lieri-:iti i ; ; ixiiice

who fihall coufessaud aclinowledge one Alnii-liiv '.-i i I' ih ri.Mtur, upholder, and ruler of the world, and that [nnti-xMii iiim .u herself



nlly enjoy

reflection ; and if any person shall abuse or deride any other for his or her different persuasion and practice in matter of religion, such sliall be looked upon as a disturber of the peace and be punished accordingly.

Pent], in a letter dated 5th of 1st mo. (corresi)ondil le present style), 1C81,* addressed to Kobert Turner, t

* It miiBt be borne in mind that for many years after the ( Penn the inhabitants of the province began the year on the of JIarch, hence in many old documents the dates are writ 1st day of 1st month, 10S,= j.


Erection of Lancaster, Cumberland, and Bedford Counties— Purchases of the Indian Title—Erection of Townships and Election Districts- Local Officers.

Laxcaster,- the fourth county of the province, was erected from Chester by an act of the General Assem- bly passed the 10th day of May, 172!», and ciiihraced all the lands of the province to the iiortlnvanl of Oc- torara Creek, and to the westward of a line nf marked trees running from the north branch ol' said creek to the river Schuylkill. The sixth county, Cuinl)erland,^ was erected by the act of the 27th day of .lanuary, 1750, and took from Lancaster all the lands lying within the province to the westward of Susquehanna and northward and westward of the county of York.*

The proprietaries, having due regard to the rights of the Indians, would not permit any occupation of lands, either by settlement or grant from the hind office, until after the Indian title had become vested in them. At the time of the organization of Cumber- land County the natives were yet in possession of all the territory northwest of the Kittatinny Mountain (the northern barrier of the Cumberland Valley) and the Susquehanna River. At a treaty held by order of the king at Albany in the summer of 1754, negotiations for the purchase of the Indian title resulted in the execution, on the 6th day of July in that year, of a deed from the chiefs of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onon- daga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Tuscarora nations, consti- tuting the confederacy known as the Six Nations, con- veying, for the consideration of four hundred pounds lawful money of New York, to Thomas and Richard Penn, "all the lands lying within the said province of Pennsylvania, bounded and limited as follows, namely: Beginning at the Kittochtinny or Blue Hills, on the west branch of Susquehanna River, and thence by the said, a mile above the mouth of a certain creek called Kayarondinhagh ; thence north- west and by west as far as the said province of Penn- sylvania extends to its western lines or boundaries; thence along the said western line to the south line or boundary of said province ; thence by the said south line or boundary to the south side of the said Kit- tochtinny hills; thence by the south side of said hills to the place of beginning."

Although a few warrants were issued during the


year IT'w tor himls in the Ujipcr part of tlic valley of the Juniata, aii<l some surveys and improvements were made, there does not seem to have been any di- vision of this territory into touii-hip^ for some yi'ars thereafter. .\t July sessions in 17i;7 the Cumher- land eourt fixed the boundaries „( Dkiikv town~hi]i as follows: " lU'ginninp; at the middle of the Lon- Narrows; tlienee up the north side of Juniata as far as .laek's Narrows: thenre to ini-lude the valley of Kishaeokulu- and Ja^ks ('.■.•ek.- These Inmndaries included a pari of ihe pre>enl touiiship of Brady.

At Oetoher sessi.ms of llie same year lour addi- tional townships were erected, and were naniid and bounded as follows :

DfUl.lN-.— " Hounded by Mr ami Fannet townships on the one side, and Coleraine and Barre townships on the top of Sideling Hill on the other side.''

CoLlcitAINE.— "Bounded by Dublin township, as above, by the provincial line, and the to|) of Dun- | ning's .Mountain (so as to join Cumberland and Bed- ' ford townships) to the gap of M.UTi.-on's Cove, from thenee to the mouth of Yellow Creek (joining Barre township i to strike Sidling Hill.-'

Cl".MUi:i'.l..\Nl). "Bounded liy ( 'i Inain.' lowii-hip (as above), the provincial line to tlir Allr-nn \M,,iin- tain, and along the top of the All.^. ii,y .Mi.iintuiii to the top of the ridge that divid,- ihe wal.rs of Wills Creek; from thence ..f .Imiiata t,. sirike Dun- ning's Mountain through LuuV (oi]i."

BEin-'ouii. " I'jounded by the above-mentioned east line and Dunning's Mountain to the gap of Mor- rison's Cove, and from thence to the top of Tussee's Srountain (joining Barre township) so as t<. inrlu.le Morrison's Cove, and from the end of .Morrison's Cove cross by Fraid;stoun to tlie .\llegheny."

B.\I!lir..-- Bounded by Dublin, Coleraine, and Bedlord lown-bips. as already mentioned, and along the .\llegaiiy uniil a line struck from thence to Jack's Mountain so as l., include the waters of Little Juniata ;nid Shaver's and Siamling Stone Creeks."

These townships of Derry, Dublin. Coleraine, Cum- berland, ISedford, and Bmrrc included all -.1 tl..- area of Bedford, Blair, and Huntingd<,n, a lar-c pari of Fulton and Milllin, an.l a part of Centre ('Minnies. It is probable that a~ the .a-tern linots of H.d.lin were not clearlv defined, a pari ..f ubat i- now Tell township, Huntingdon Co., may have been inehided inthepreviou>lyerectedtown.hipof Lack.

■om a part of Derry. and included all flhat township n.n-tbwe~t of Jack's .Ml .flicers of the.se townships were as foil,

EUi.jt, Che: - C vl,. ]iu Ihl I, Mverseers of Ilie iwor; James Little, Chiul.-' Ice. , M,.»t-r9uf feijccs.

177IJ.— .1,1,11. ■- w . Ic h:i . .r.ilm Wilson (Barro), Wini;im Brown

(.\rm,:;l. , i i.n-; - cmiel Thomi'Son, Dauid Kf.w (Barre), .TuiM.-> Ml lAiini,;;!, , «ii|.f.rvisi.r3; ZoLulon Mooro, KoU-rt Cald-

l.illl,-, Cliail.- C.,l,lvn-ll I Band, viow.-rs of fi-nccs. 1771._William ,Sliirlf.v I li,irn--), ,Iame3 Foley (Dillilin), lonslaWes ; Saiiuu-1 ThoiiiiHon. Daniel Ego (Bane), superviaors: Zebiilon Jloor, Robert Caldwell iBarre), Charles Boyle, Benjamin Elliot (Dublin), overseers of Ilie poor.

The Indians, after fully realizing the immense Stretch of country covered by the bounds set in the treaty of 1754, expressed disappointment and dissat- isfaction. They said they did not understand the points of the compass and were thereby deceived. Some of them became allies of the French and com- menced a series of depredations upon the frontier settlers.

An accommiiihition of the ditferences between the proprietary govern nient and the Indians was eflfected at a conference held at Easton, where on the 23d day of October, 17ri.S, a deed was executed limiting the boundaries of the purchase as follows, to wit : " Be- ginning at the Kittochtinny or Blue Hills, on the we-t bank of the Sus.|Uehanna River, and running thence up the >aid river, and binding therewith, to a mile abiive the mouth of a creek called Kaaromlinhah (or John Penn's Creek); thence northwest and by west to a creek called Buffaloe's Creek; thence west to the east side of tlie Alleghany or .\i)palachian Hills; thence along the east side of said hills, liind- ing therewith, to the south line or boundary of the said province; thence by the said .south line or bonn- darv to the -oiith side of the Kittatinny Hill; thence by the south side of the said hill to the ].la.-e .,f be- ginning." This deed confirmed the title of the |iro- prietaries to all the lands within the boundaries above mentioned, including the present counties of Bed- ford, Fulton, Blair, Huntingdon, MifHin, Juniata, and Perry, and parts of Snyder, Union, and Centre, and released to the Six Nations the residue embr.acod iu the deed of 1754.

By an act passed on the 0th day of March, 1771, Bc'dford County was erected from Cumlieiland. and itslionmlaries fixed as follows: " Beginning wliere the province line crosses the Tuscarora ilountain. and running along the summit of that mountain to the gap near the head of Path Valley; thence with a norih line to the .Juniata; thence with the Juniata to Ihe iiiniiih of Shaver's Creek; thence northeast to the line cif Berks County; thence along the Berks County line northwestward to the western bounds of the province; thence southward, according to the several courses' of the western boundary of the |irov- ince, to the snulhwest corner of the prfivince; and from iheiicc eastward with the southern line of the province to the ]ilace of beginning."

1 At "II'' lini-' it wa.^ clainieil by Virginia that the western bonndarj-


This act authorized the Governor to commission a competent number of justices, who, or any three of whom, were empowered to hold courts in the months of January, April, July, and October in every year. With remarkable promptitude a Court of Quarter Sessions was opened at Bedford on the 16th day of April, 1771, by William Proctor, Robert Hanna, Wil- liam Lockery, Robert Cluggage,' George Wilson, and | William McConnell. The court then proceeded to divide the county into townships. Air, Dublin, 1 and CoLEUAiXE were to remain as fixed by the Cum- berland court. The lines of Bedford and Cumber- land were extended from the foot to the top of the j Allegheny Mountain. Barre to be cut otf by Little Juniata andTussey's Mountain. Brother's Valley, Fairfield, Mount Pleasant, Hemp Field, Pitt, Tyrone, Spring Hill, RossStraver, Armstrong, andTullileague follow, but as these townships embraced territory out- side of the limits of Huntingdon and Blair they do not concern us now.

At July sessions, 1773, " that part of Barre town- ship including all the waters that empty into the Raystown Branch of Juniata below the mouth of Yellow Creek and up said creek to Tussey's Moun- tain is hereby erected into a township by the name of Hopewell township." ;

It will be noticed that the act creating Bedford County excluded from the boundaries therein de- scribed that portion of Huntingdon County lying northeast of the Juniata below the mouth of Shaver's Creek, and according to the letter of the law that territory remained in Cumberland County. The act of March 21, 1772, forming Northumberland, took from Bedford the territory lying west of Tussey's Mountain and northeast of the main branch of the Little Juniata to the head thereof^ Another act passed the same day^ for the purpose of explaining and better ascertaining the boundary lines of the county of Bedford, after reciting the boundaries de- scribed in the act of the 9th day of Marcli, 1771, and that as " the Tuscarora Mountain does not extend to the province line and the southern boundaries afore- said are not properly described, the lines of the county of Bedford cannot be known and run by the trustees appointed for that purpose, provided that the lines following, to wit: "Beginning where the province line crosses the North or Blue Mountain, that runs between the Great and Little Coves and that part of Cumberland County called Connegocheague, and thence along the summit of the said mountain to the beginning of the Tuscarora Mountain, and running along the summit of the said Tuscarora Mountain to the gap near the head of the Path Valley, from thence a north line to the Juniata River; thence up the Juniata to the mountain that divides the Kishicocolus Valley from the Standing Stone Valley, and along the

summit of that mountain to the head of the Stand- ing Stone Creek ; from thence northeast to the line of Berks County; thence by Berks County line to the western bounds of the province ; thence southward, according to the several courses of the western boun- dary of the province, to the southwest corner thereof; and from thence with other boundaries of the prov- ince to the place of beginning; shall be, and are hereby declared to be, the boundary lines of the said county of Bedford."

By act of the 2(5th day of February, 1773, all the territory of Bedford lying west of the Laurel Plill and of the ridge dividing the waters of the Allegheny and Susquehanna to the head of the latter stream, and south of a line to be run thence due west to the limits of the province, was erected into a new county called Westmoreland.*

The geography of the valley of the Juniata was not well understood by the framers of the acts of Assem- bly above recited, and the indefinite and inconsistent descriptions of boundary lines were producing uncer- tainty and conflict of authority. On the .30th day of September, 1779, an act was passed reciting that^

ti.e coiirsB of Lit

11 iiiLuuvuiiieiit fur tUe ijeople tii:il;i at tlie place aforesaid; I luiintyof Cumberland: For

land iiloresaid ; mid thence along the said line last mentioned to tlie place

This act annexed that part of Ki.shacoquillas Valley now in Brady township, Huntingdon Co., to Bedford


County. In 1773, two years alter the erection of Bed- lonl County, the huiils ;dong the river from Jaek'.s Narrows to tlie mouth of Mill Creek, and those tlien taken up in the we>t end of Kisliaeoquillas Valley, were taxed in the a>-e--niint of Barre townshif), Cund.erland ('....and il i> fair lo presume that this di>triel reuiainr.l un.l.r the juri>.li.ti.in of that eounty until after the ])as>a,i;e of the ai't of the ."Uth of Sep-

FuANKsTowx township was created at .\].ril ^e-- sions, 177.'>, from parts of Bedford and Banv, and the boundaries tixcl as f.dlnw-: "Along the line divid- inLC r.e.lfor.l aii.l X..rtliund.iil:iiid Counties from the We-t ISran.h ..f Su-.|.i.-lianua t.. where Little Juniata ruii^ throu;:h Tussey's .Mountain; then alonj:; the said mountain to the ridge dividing Morrison's Cove from ('r..yle's Cove; then along the said ridge lo Dun- ning's .Mountain ; then along Dunning's Mountain to the dividing ridge between the waters of Dunnin_i;'s Creek and the southwest branch of Frankstown ISraneh ; then along said ridge to the AUegeny .Mountain ; then cross the .same and by the line of tiueinahoning townsliip to the line dividing Bedford an.l VVestmoreland Counties, and by the said line and al.ing the limits ,,f this eounty t.. the place of be-in-

This l..wnship included the whole of Blair C..iinty ami the present townsliips of Jlorris, Franklin, anil Warri.n-'s :\Iark of Huntingdon County.

Hl'NTi.vGDON" township was formed from a part of liarre. The records of the court do not contain any account of its erection. At April sessions, H.'^d, a return of the townsliip officers was made, iV.mi wlii.di it may be inferred that the township was finim .1 about 1771). Its territory is now divi.le.l into P.ra.ly, WalkiT. Porter, and parts ol .[iiniai:i. L i;;aii. 1 1. nihr..on, ami Oneida. The records aU.. f:iil |., ..mv,. an a.v.aint ..f the erection of Siii ni.r.'i i..un-liip, whicii wa> fnrm..d from Dublin about the .lale la-t m.-ntiune.l. The earliest assessment ..f (hi- t..uii-hip was ma. I.- in 17^0, and of Hunting.!.. !i in 17M.

Tvi:..m: l.,wn-hip wa- eivet,.,] fn.in Fraiikst.,wn, but m-ither tl,.' .lal.' n„r l,.,un.larie, ai.i.ear a,„„„.r

District,- at the place called the Standing Stone; and the freemen of the townships of Brother's Valley, Turkey Foot, and Quesnaclioning, being the Fourth district, at the house of John Kemberline, near the junction of said three townships." Each voter was required to produce a certificate of his having taken and subscribed the oath of allegiance, as prescribed by an act passed the preceding day.

By the act of the 13th day of September, 178.".,' dividing the several counties into election .li-tricts, Bedford County was separated into live .lisiri.ts, and the elections directed to be held as follows : Fir->t, the town of Bedford and the townships of Bedford, Cide- raine. Providence, and Cumberland Valley, at the court-house in Bedford; Second, the townships of Bethel and Air, at the house of Ephraim Wallace, in Bethel; Third, the townships of Barre, Hopewell, Frankstown, and Huntingd..n, at the place called the .•Standing t^t.jiie; Fourth, the t..wii~hips „f Bn.ther's Valley, (iuesmahoning, Turk.y F....t. an.l Wilford, at the house of James I'.lack, in i Jiiesmaboning ; Fifth, the townships of Dublin an.l .<liirley, at the house of George Cluggage, in Shirl.v. On tlie I'Jth day of Septeiiil.rr. ifso.- a -iMli .li-trict was created, insisting ,.f tlic ■■ t..u M-h!|.- .,1 Frankst.iwn an.l Mor- ris,,n's Cove" V .an.l Ih.' el. cti.. IIS, lirecto.lt., be held at the li,,iise ,.l' l.a/,aiiis Li,wrey, at Frankstown.

The act ,,r Si.|.t. iT, 1786, fixed the number of re|iresentati\es t., the (ieneral Assembly to be elected in Bedford County at three.

The oflicers of the townships of Bedford C.,unty that covered the present territory of Huntiiigd.,n and I'dair, appointed by the Court of (Quarter Sessions, were as f,dlows:

«y riiilip .Stonei* (Hopewell) l.iitl.- (niinee), Joliii Bell i

iity fBiiiree), John Liittu 1

Lies; J„


Elections and Election Districts.— A huv en

une U, 1777, lixed the seeon.l Tuesday of Oe H the day for le.hling the annual sreneral ele. l,-.ll..r.l t'ounty was .livi.lcl int., four ,li>tri,-ts


.,ws: •• II,.. fr,-,-m,m .,f ll„. t.,wnsl,ips ..f f.,r.l, C.,Ieraiii,-. an.l (■unib,.rl.-,n.l Valh-v, h.-in- First District, shall h.,|.l th.ir ,lccti,,ns at the

<.ii,, Tli..„i.,s.l..l,„st.ii. (l!Hr,ec), Beiijiimin Snn- (IIop."»cll), ovi-raeers of the poo,-; James Lit- (nui-ree), MiL-hiiel Whetstone, Peter Hnrtsock

l.ireli W: Willmm Barriek (Frankstown), Wil- ..pcwi-lli, coi^tiil.les; Al.salom Oray, Siinmel Bi',ijiilninS;iu„.lei-8, BiLSliiin Shoiipe (Hopewell), ; M;iiki-m l'..l,Tii!in (Kninkstowni, Peter Ilart- .'ivis..rs. April se>*si'm^: D;ivid Lewis ^B.irree),


Ym.—PeUij t'Miom, Sept. 27 : William RidJle (Barree). John WalUer (Dublin), Joseph Cellar (Frankstown ), .Kisliua DavU (Hopewell), con- stables. General ses'iom, Oct. 14 : William EiilJle, of Barree, B[ied ; John Wallier, of Dublin, fined thirty shillings: Thomas Anderson, Joshua Davis (Hopewelll, F^dix Milb-r, appointed constables.

l-n.—GstJeral semom, Api il 1:1 : William Wilson (Barree), William Winton(DnMiM),ooMstaI-l,s.

1780.— (Jen

(Barren), Ihi h . ■: .! l.n n^ .iI- : !"-■ ' : r,, M.iliiin

David ].""! ! : .'. , ^^ : '•■ - - i M ilnp,

well), Ai. ii> 1 1 . I I , ,:. ,. , I -I ".-■- <ia

braith, Jiui,.^ '.i"„.,'i' .-liiil.;. ' ! l ' ■'■«»'-

Anderson, JeiiMniaUliickets I r..n I I . ' I i , .1 ^m

sey (Dublin), Jacob Kowler, Jr., \ > i i il.-i' >mm. s 1.

mon Sell, Hugh Skelly (Hopru.l ,1 i . ~ I , ,i"-liu;i l,.«

(HuntinKdiin), Jacob Shara, Jamco L.uiiiuh.iia i.>huloj, sopciv

1781.— ,lj.ii( .sessions- .- David Kalston (Barree), James Barnet (Dublin Absaluni ("ira.v (Fr;.i,k>lu« „\ Lo.lwid; Sidls (Ilnntingdcnl, Oeorj Clugga;;..:^ .- .. ..,...,1.1 .. .1, „. |.h ir , . IV„i , n,i M.r.ufle

), John Kamaey (Dublin),

Jaiiu-i. .\i. ., .1,: 1, I v lliurree), James Harn,.t, Hugh Davi-

B,.ii (liiil h .1 rge Reynolds (Huntingdon), George

Wils.ju. .1-1, 1, II ,i„.,i, ;-i,i;l,.,j), o\erseers of tlie p.ior; John Wil- son, Janii'.'i !I;inn;iiu (Danee), R,.ibert Kani^ey, IJeorge Hudson (Dublin), Henry NelT, Nathaniel Janit (Huntingdon). James Gal- braith, William Morris (Shirley), supervisors of the Iiighways.

Among the citizens of tli.it portion of Bedford County now composing Huntingdon and Blair, sum- moned as grand jurors, were: 1772, July 14th, Michael Cryder; 1780, April Uth, William Shirley; 1781, January sessions, William Simonton, James Foley, and Michael Cryder; 1782, April sessions, Samuel Anderson ; July sessions, Samuel Anderson, James

Foley, and Moses Donaldson ; October sessions, Alex- ander McConnell ; 17.SG, January sessions, George Ashman and George Cluggage.

The first Court of Quarter Se.ssions was held at Bedford, April 16, 1771, before "William Proctor, Robert Cluggage, Kobert Hanna, George Wilson, William Lockery, and William ^■\lc( ■.mncll, i;>qs.,

justices of our Lord the King, to hear and diiirniine divers felonies and misdemeanors in the said county committed." Twenty-three grand jurors were sworn. Robert Galbraith was enrolled as an attorney. At April sessions, 1773, "John Freeharty, of the grand jury, is fined five shillings for being drunk, and ten shillings for the contempt in so doing while on the duty of that oSice, and coming into court while in that condition."

At July sessions, 1780, " The Court proceeded to regulate the Price of Labourers, and are of opinion that the same shall be estimated and rated 26 Dollars each Ifan Y Day." October sessions continued at same rate.

Unexplained this would appear extravagant, but it must be borne in mind that the standard of value was the dollar in Continental currcnry, which had rapidly shrunk in worth as coiitraslcd with .s|.ccie. Wlien measured by the specie standaid, lUv pi nc of a day's abor was about forty cents. The i)aper currency of the country depreciated so rapidly in value tliat it was necessary to establish some rate of exchange, and tlie General Assembly, by act of April 3, 1781, lixed a scale of depreciation for each month from the bi-Liinning of the year 1777 to the end of February, si. In July, 1780, it required sixty-four and one- If dollars in paper to equal one dollar in specie. Ain.iiig the justices sworn, as appear.s by the rec- ords, were :

1771, April 16, Robert Cluggage ; 1773, April 13, Robert Cluggage ; 1774, April 13, Robert Cluggage; 1782, Dec. 18, Robert Cluggage ; 1773, April 13, Wil- MoConnell ; 1774, May 12, Henry Lloyd; 1777, September, Robert Galbraith, James Martin ; 1779, Jan. 13, James Carmichael, James Coyle ; 1779, Feb. 12, Matthew Dean; 1781, April 28, John Canan (commission dated Feb. 3, 1781); 1786, July 20, Thomas Wilson, John Little ; 1787, Jan. 22, John Coyle ; 1787, June 22, James Coyle.

j Persons were recommended for license to keep public-houses as follows :

J 1773, July sessions, Michael Cryder ; 1773, October sessions, Michael Cryder; 1774, October sessions, Michael Cryder, Ludwick Sells; 1778, April sessions, Francis Cluggage ; 1781, January sessions, Ludwick

I Sells; 1781, April sessions, Benjamin Elliot.

Benjamin Elliot was commissioned high sheriff

I Oct. 31. 178-5, and was sworn Dec. 19, 17,8.5.

George Ashman, lieutenant, was sworn Dec. 26,

I 1780.



hy Ihi: Wl.ilvsoli I'lipurclKui'd Lllljils.

At llie time the lirst Kiiropeaii setllomi'iit^ were iiiaiie ill I'eiiMsylvaiiia tlip snil was occupied liy In- dians who called tlieniselves Lenni Lenape, or tlie original people. They were desifrnated by the Euro- peans Delaware.^, by reason of their inhabiting the region of country drained by that stream. They were also known as Algonquins. The tradition of this people was that in the far-distant past, in niijrrating eastward, about the time they reached the Mis-is-ippi,' they fell in with the Mengwe,- who also camr from a distant country, and had reached the river farther north. Both nations had the same object in view, the seeking of a new and better country towards the rising sun. E.xploring parties sent in advance re- ported the region east of the river to be inhabited by a people of physique much superior to that of the in- vader-, and that they dwelt within intrenchments or forliliratii.iis. This peo|)le, called Allegewi, declined pcriiii^-idii to settle in their country, but agreed that the Lenajies and Mengwe might pass